Funk KE, Arutyunov AD, Desai P, White JP, Soung AL, Rosen SF, Diamond MS, Klein RS. Decreased antiviral immune response within the central nervous system of aged mice is associated with increased lethality of West Nile virus encephalitis. Aging Cell. 2021 Aug;20(8):e13412.

How COVID-19 Affects the Brain. Boldrini M, Canoll PD, Klein RS. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021 Mar 26. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0500. Online ahead of print.

A new era of neuroimmunology. Piccio L, Wu GF, Klein RS. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 2021 Feb 15;351:577478. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Neuroprotective versus Neuroinflammatory Roles of Complement: From Development to Disease. Kanmonge M, Klein RS. Trends in Neuroscience. 2021 Feb;44(2):97-109. Epub 2020 Nov 12.


Update on T Cells in the Virally Infected Brain: Friends and Foes. Ai S, Klein RS. Current Opinion in Neurology. 2020 Jun;33(3):405-412.

Encephalitic Alphaviruses Exploit Caveola-Mediated Transcytosis at the Blood-Brain Barrier for Central Nervous System Entry. Samili H, Cain MD, Jiang X, Roth RA, Beatty WL, Sun C, Klimstra WB, Hou J, Klein RS. mBio. 2020 Feb 11;11(1):e02731-19.

Astrocyte-T Cell Crosstalk Regulates Region-Specific Neuroinflammation. Williams JL, Manivasagam S, Smith BC, Sim J, Vollmer LL, Daniels BP, Russell JH, Klein RS. Glia. 2020 Jul;68(7):1361-1374. Epub 2020 Jan 21.


Astrocytes: Initiators of and Responders to Inflammation. Soung A, Klein RS. IntechOpen. 2019 Nov 5. [Online First], doi: 10.5772/intechopen.89760.

Mechanisms of Pathogen Invasion into the Central Nervous System. Cain MD, Salimi H, Diamond MS, Klein RS. Neuron. 2019 Sep 4;103(5):771-783.

T cells promote microglia-mediated synaptic elimination and cognitive dysfunction during recovery from neuropathogenic flaviviruses. Garber C, Soung A, Vollmer LL, Kanmogne M, Last A, Brown J, Klein RS. Nature Neuroscience. 2019 Aug;22(8):1276-1288.

Neuroinflammation During RNA Viral Infections. Klein RS, Garber C, Funk KE, Salimi H, Soung A, Kanmogne M, Manivasagam S, Agner S, Cain M. Annual Review of Immunology. 2019 Apr 26;37:73-95.

CSF1R antagonism limits local restimulation of antiviral CD8+ T cells during viral encephalitis. Funk KE, Klein RS. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2019 Jan 31;16(1):22.


Viral Encephalitis and Neurologic Diseases: Focus on Astrocytes. Soung A, Klein RS. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 2018 Nov;24(11):950-962.

Viruses have multiple paths to central nervous system pathology. Agner SC, Klein RS. Current Opinion in Neurology. 2018 Jun;31(3):313-317.

Astrocytes decrease adult neurogenesis during virus-induced memory dysfunction via IL-1. Garber C, Vasek MJ, Vollmer LL, Sun T, Jiang X, Klein RS. Nature Immunology. 2018 Feb;19(2):151-161.


Dual Blades: The Role of Musashi 1 in Zika Replication and Microcephaly. Klein RS. Cell Host & Microbe. 2017 Jul 12;22(1):9-11.

Virus entry and replication in the brain precedes blood-brain barrier disruption during intranasal alphavirus infection. Cain MD, Salimi H, Gong Y, Yang L, Hamilton SL, Heffernan JR, Hou J, Miller MJ, Klein RS. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 2017 Jul 15;308:118-130.

Speaking out about gender imbalance in invited speakers improves diversity. Klein RS, Voskuhl R, Segal BM, Dittel BN, Lane TE, Bethea JR, Carson MJ, Colton C, Rosi S, Anderson A, Piccio L, Goverman JM, Benveniste EN, Brown MA, Tiwari-Woodruff SK, Harris TH, Cross AH. Nature Immunology. 2017 Apr 18;18(5):475-478.

Regional astrocyte IFN signaling restricts pathogenesis during neurotropic viral infection. Daniels BP, Jujjavarapu H, Durrant DM, Williams JL, Green RR, White JP, Lazear HM, Gale M Jr, Diamond MS, Klein RS. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2017 Mar 1;127(3):843-856.

Infectious immunity in the central nervous system and brain function. Klein RS, Garber C, Howard N. Nature Immunology. 2017 Feb;18(2):132-141.


A complement-microglial axis drives synapse loss during virus-induced memory impairment. Vasek MJ, Garber C, Dorsey D, Durrant DM, Bollman B, Soung A, Yu J, Perez-Torres C, Frouin A, Wilton DK, Funk K, DeMasters BK, Jiang X, Bowen JR, Mennerick S, Robinson JK, Garbow JR, Tyler KL, Suthar MS, Schmidt RE, Stevens B, Klein RS. Nature. 2016 Jun;534(7608):538-43.

Encephalitic Arboviruses: Emergence, Clinical Presentation, and Neuropathogenesis. Salimi H, Cain MD, Klein RS. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jul;13(3):514-34.

The Olfactory Bulb: An Immunosensory Effector Organ during Neurotropic Viral Infections. Durrant DM, Ghosh S, Klein RS. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2016 Apr 20;7(4):464-9.


CCR5 limits cortical viral loads during West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system. Durrant DM, Daniels BP, Pasieka T, Dorsey D, Klein RS. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2015 Dec 15;12:233.

Knocking on Closed Doors: Host Interferons Dynamically Regulate Blood-Brain Barrier Function during Viral Infections of the Central Nervous System. Daniels BP, Klein RS. PLOS Pathogens. 2015 Sep 17;11(9):e1005096.


IL-1R1 signaling regulates CXCL12-mediated T cell localization and fate within the central nervous system during West Nile Virus encephalitis. Durrant DM, Daniels BP, Klein RS. Journal of Immunology. 2014 Oct 15;193(8):4095-106.

Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns regulate blood-brain barrier integrity via competing innate cytokine signals. Daniels BP, Holman DW, Cruz-Orengo L, Jujjavarapu H, Durrant DM, Klein RS. MBio. 2014 Aug 26;5(5):e01476-14.

Chemokines in the balance: maintenance of homeostasis and protection at CNS barriers. Williams JL, Holman DW, Klein RS. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 2014 May 28;8:154.

Enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 expression underlies female CNS autoimmunity susceptibility. Cruz-Orengo L, Daniels BP, Dorsey D, Basak SA, Grajales-Reyes JG, McCandless EE, Piccio L, Schmidt RE, Cross AH, Crosby SD, Klein RS. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2014 Jun;124(6):2571-84.

Congenitally acquired persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis viral infection reduces neuronal progenitor pools in the adult hippocampus and subventricular zone. Sun T, Vasek MJ, Klein RS. PLoS One. 2014 May 6;9(5):e96442.

Targeting CXCR7/ACKR3 as a therapeutic strategy to promote remyelination in the adult central nervous system. Williams JL, Patel JR, Daniels BP, Klein RS. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2014 May 5;211(5):791-9.

Chemokines Referee Inflammation within the Central Nervous System during Infection and Disease. Durrant DM, Williams JL, Daniels BP, Klein RS. Advances in Medicine. 2014;2014:806741.


IL-1R1 is required for dendritic cell-mediated T cell reactivation within the CNS during West Nile virus encephalitis. Durrant DM, Robinette ML, Klein RS. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2013 Mar 11;210(3):503-16.

Immortalized human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells maintain the properties of primary cells in an in vitro model of immune migration across the blood brain barrier. Daniels BP, Cruz-Orengo L, Pasieka TJ, Couraud PO, Romero IA, Weksler B, Cooper JA, Doering TL, Klein RS. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2013 Jan 15;212(1):173-9.


CXCR7 antagonism prevents axonal injury during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as revealed by in vivo axial diffusivity. Cruz-Orengo L, Chen YJ, Kim JH, Dorsey D, Song SK, Klein RS. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2011 Dec 6;8:170.

CXCR7 influences leukocyte entry into the CNS parenchyma by controlling abluminal CXCL12 abundance during autoimmunity. Cruz-Orengo L, Holman DW, Dorsey D, Zhou L, Zhang P, Wright M, McCandless EE, Patel JR, Luker GD, Littman DR, Russell JH, Klein RS. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2011 Feb 14;208(2):327-39.


TNF-alpha-dependent regulation of CXCR3 expression modulates neuronal survival during West Nile virus encephalitis. Zhang B, Patel J, Croyle M, Diamond MS, Klein RS. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 2010 Jul 27;224(1-2):28-38.


IL-1R signaling within the central nervous system regulates CXCL12 expression at the blood-brain barrier and disease severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. McCandless EE, Budde M, Lees JR, Dorsey D, Lyng E, Klein RS. Journal of Immunology. 2009 Jul 1;183(1):613-20.

CXCR4 antagonism increases T cell trafficking in the central nervous system and improves survival from West Nile virus encephalitis. McCandless EE, Zhang B, Diamond MS, Klein RS. PNAS. 2008 Aug 12;105(32):11270-5.

Pathological expression of CXCL12 at the blood-brain barrier correlates with severity of multiple sclerosis. McCandless EE, Piccio L, Woerner BM, Schmidt RE, Rubin JB, Cross AH, Klein RS. The American Journal of Pathology. 2008 Mar;172(3):799-808.

CXCR3 mediates region-specific antiviral T cell trafficking within the central nervous system during West Nile virus encephalitis. Zhang B, Chan YK, Lu B, Diamond MS, Klein RS. Journal of Immunology. 2008 Feb 15;180(4):2641-9.

Molecular targets for disrupting leukocyte trafficking during multiple sclerosis. McCandless EE, Klein RS. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine. 2007 Jul 19;9(20):1-19.

CXCL12 limits inflammation by localizing mononuclear infiltrates to the perivascular space during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. McCandless EE, Wang Q, Woerner BM, Harper JM, Klein RS. Journal of Immunology. 2006 Dec 1;177(11):8053-64.

Neuronal CXCL10 directs CD8+ T-cell recruitment and control of West Nile virus encephalitis. Klein RS, Lin E, Zhang B, Luster AD, Tollett J, Samuel MA, Engle M, Diamond MS. Journal of Virology. 2005 Sep;79(17):11457-66.